which of these is not one of hofstede's dimensions of cultural values? course hero

by Dr. Liana Windler II 8 min read

What is Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Theory?

Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Theory, developed by Geert Hofstede, is a framework used to understand the differences in culture across countries and to discern the ways that business is done across different cultures. In other words, the framework is used to distinguish between different national cultures, the dimensions of culture, ...

What did Hofstede find in his database of Culture Statistics?

When Hofstede analyzed his database of culture statistics, he found clear patterns of similarity and difference along the four dimensions. And, because his research focused solely on IBM employees, he could attribute those patterns to national differences, and minimize the impact of company culture.

What are the four dimensions of cultural values?

The original theory proposed four dimensions along which cultural values could be analyzed: individualism - collectivism; uncertainty avoidance; power distance (strength of social hierarchy) and masculinity-femininity (task-orientation versus person-orientation).

What is the Hofstede framework for organizational culture?

Geert Hofstede was a social scientist from the Netherlands and developed this framework in 1980 by analyzing more than 88,000 staff from 72 nations in IBM subsidiaries. He created this framework based on how beliefs and values contradict work objectives.

What are the dimensions of Hofstede's model?

Geert Hofstede, in his pioneer study looking at differences in culture across modern nations, identified four dimensions of cultural values: individualism-collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity-femininity.

Which of the following are the five cultural value dimensions as described by Hofstede?

According to Hofstede, the five main dimensions are identity, power, gender, uncertainty, and time. You can think about cultural value dimensions on a scale or a continuum, where one aspect of the value lies on one side of the scale and the other extreme lies at the other end of the scale.

What do Hofstede's dimensions measure?

Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Theory, developed by Geert Hofstede, is a framework used to understand the differences in culture across countries. Hofstede's initial six key dimensions include power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism-collectivism, masculinity-femininity, and short vs. long-term orientation.

Which of the following concepts is not one of Hofstede's dimensions of culture?

The correct answer is: B) Hofstede's five dimensions of natural culture are as follows: Uncertainty avoidance. Power Distance. Masculinity versus femininity.

What are the 5 dimensions of cultural differences?

He explored national cultures through the identification of five different dimensions, which are:Power distance.Uncertainty avoidance.Individualism-collectivism.Masculinity-femininity.Time orientation.

What are the five cultural values?

Cultural value was assessed by disaggregating it into five components: aesthetic, social, symbolic, spiritual and educational value.

Why use Hofstede cultural dimensions?

Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Theory, developed by Geert Hofstede, is a framework used to understand the differences in culture across countries and to discern the ways that business is done across different cultures.

What are three of the dimensions Hofstede identified and studied?

It has been refined since. The original theory proposed four dimensions along which cultural values could be analyzed: individualism-collectivism; uncertainty avoidance; power distance (strength of social hierarchy) and masculinity-femininity (task-orientation versus person-orientation).

What are the 5 elements of culture?

The major elements of culture are symbols, language, norms, values, and artifacts. Language makes effective social interaction possible and influences how people conceive of concepts and objects.

What are the five cultural values?

Cultural value was assessed by disaggregating it into five components: aesthetic, social, symbolic, spiritual and educational value.

What are Hofstede's cultural dimensions explain each one?

The original theory proposed four dimensions along which cultural values could be analyzed: individualism-collectivism; uncertainty avoidance; power distance (strength of social hierarchy) and masculinity-femininity (task-orientation versus person-orientation).

What is Hofstede cultural dimensions quizlet?

Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions. assesses cultural differences across social contexts. individualism-collectivism. addresses how ppl define themselves and their relations with others.

What Are Hofstede's Six Dimensions of Culture?

Since then, it's become an internationally recognized standard for understanding cultural differences.

Who discovered the sixth dimension?

Hofstede' s sixth dimension, discovered and described together with Michael Minkov, is also relatively new, and is therefore accompanied by less data.

How do cultural norms play a role in interpersonal relationships?

When you grow up in a certain culture, you take the behavioral norms of your society for granted, and you don't have to think about your reactions, preferences and feelings, provided that you don't deviate too much from the central tendency in your society.

Why is it important to have a discussion in Greece?

Therefore, during a meeting in Greece, you might be keen to generate discussion, because you recognize that there's a cultural tendency for team members to make the safest, most conservative decisions, despite any emotional outbursts. Your aim is to encourage them to become more open to different ideas and approaches, but it may be helpful to provide a relatively limited, structured set of options or solutions.

Which countries have the lowest IDV score?

Application: Central American countries Panama and Guatemala have very low IDV scores (11 and six, respectively). In these countries, as an example, a marketing campaign that emphasizes benefits to the community would likely be understood and well received, as long as the people addressed feel part of the same group.

Which country has the highest MAS score?

Application: As we've highlighted, Japan has the highest MAS score of 95, whereas Sweden has the lowest measured value of five. Therefore, if you open an office in Japan, you should recognize you are operating in a hierarchical, deferential and traditionally patriarchal society. Long hours are the norm, and this, in turn, can make it harder for female team members to gain advancement, due to family commitments.

Who studied IBM?

Hofstede studied people who worked for IBM in more than 50 countries. Initially, he identified four dimensions that could distinguish one culture from another. Later, he added fifth and sixth dimensions, in cooperation with Drs Michael H. Bond and Michael Minkov. These are:

What is the 6-D model of national culture?

These are called dimensions of culture. Each of them has been expressed on a scale that runs roughly from 0 to 100.

How are dimensions derived?

Each dimension has been derived by comparing many, but not all, countries in the world. The findings can be summarized into six world maps of the distribution of that dimension. Of course, in reality there can be quite a bit of within-country variation; these maps should be seen as rough 'climate maps' of culture.

What dimension does Hofstede add?

In 2010, Hofstede added a sixth dimension, indulgence versus self-restraint . Hofstede's work established a major research tradition in cross-cultural psychology and has also been drawn upon by researchers and consultants in many fields relating to international business and communication.

When was Hofstede's model developed?

Hofstede developed his original model as a result of using factor analysis to examine the results of a worldwide survey of employee values by IBM between 1967 and 1973. It has been refined since.

What are the dimensions of national culture?

This initial analysis identified systematic differences in national cultures on four primary dimensions: power distance (PDI), individualism (IDV), uncertainty avoidance (UAI) and masculinity (MAS), which are described below. As Hofstede explains on his academic website, these dimensions regard "four anthropological problem areas that different national societies handle differently: ways of coping with inequality, ways of coping with uncertainty, the relationship of the individual with her or his primary group, and the emotional implications of having been born as a girl or as a boy". In 1984 he published Culture's Consequences, a book which combines the statistical analysis from the survey research with his personal experiences.

Why is the six dimension model important?

The six-dimension model is very useful in international marketing because it defines national values not only in business context but in general . Marieke de Mooij has studied the application of Hofstede's findings in the field of global branding, advertising strategy and consumer behavior.

How many countries were covered in the IBM study?

Covering between 14 and 28 countries each, the samples included commercial airline pilots, students, civil service managers, 'up-market' consumers and 'elites'. The combined research established value scores on the four dimensions for a total of 76 countries and regions.

Why is the quantification of cultural dimensions important?

The quantification of cultural dimensions enables people to make cross-regional comparisons and form an image of the differences between not just countries but entire regions. For example, the cultural model of the Mediterranean countries is dominated by high levels of acceptance of inequalities, with uncertainty aversion influencing their choices. With regard to individualism, Mediterranean countries tend to be characterized by moderate levels of individualistic behavior. The same applies to masculinity. Future orientation places Mediterranean countries in a middle ranking, and they show a preference for indulgence values.

Who is Geert Hofstede?

Geert Hofstede is perhaps the best known sociologist of culture and anthropologist in the context of applications for understanding international business. Many articles and research papers refer to his publications, with over 26,000 citations to his 2001 book Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations (which is an updated version of his first publication ). The five dimensions model is widely used in many domains of human social life, and particularly in the field of business. Practical applications were developed almost immediately.

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Power-Distance Index

Collectivism vs. Individualism

  • Individualism and collectivism, respectively, refer to the integration of individuals into groups. Individualistic societiesstress achievement and individual rights, focusing on the needs of oneself and one's immediate family. A person's self-image in this category is defined as "I." In contrast, collectivist societies place a greater importance on the goals and well-being of the group, with a …
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Uncertainty Avoidance Index

  • The uncertainty avoidance dimension of Hofstede's cultural dimensions addresses a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. This dimension reflects the extent to which members of a society attempt to cope with their anxiety by minimizing uncertainty. In its most simplified form, uncertainty avoidance refers to how threatening change is to a culture (Hofstede, 1980). A high …
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Femininity vs. Masculinity

  • Femininity vs. masculinity, also known as gender role differentiation, is yet another one of Hofstede's six dimensions of national culture. This dimension looks at how much a society values traditional masculine and feminine roles. A masculine society values assertiveness, courage, strength, and competition; a feminine society values cooperation, n...
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Short-Term vs. Long-Term Orientation

  • The long term and short term orientation dimension refers to the degree to which cultures encourage delaying gratification or the material, social, and emotional needs of its members (Hofstede, 1980). Societies with long term orientations show focus on the future in a way that delays short-term success in favor of success in the long-term. These societies emphasize trait…
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Restraint vs. Indulgence

  • Finally, the restraint and indulgence dimension considers the extent and tendency for a society to fulfill its desires. That is to say, this dimension is a measure of societal impulse and desire control. High levels of indulgence indicate that a society allows relatively free gratification, and high levels of bon de vivre. Meanwhile, restraint indicates that a society tends to suppress the gr…
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