May 18, 2014 · Radiosurgery by X-knife & Cyberknife. Radiation Therapy involves the use of ionizing radiation (commonly X rays) for the treatment of malignant and some benign tumors. Since the discovery of X rays in the late 19th century, the technology of radiation delivery, understanding of tumor biology and radiobiology has grown by leaps and bounds.
Outcome: The lesions were well-controlled, and the headache of the patient was significantly relieved one month after radiotherapy. The total survival time of the patients was 17 months from the beginning of the Cyberknife treatment.
Oct 15, 2021 · Conclusion: The present case report demonstrates that CyberKnife therapy plays a significant role in the repeated radiotherapy for multiple metastatic brain tumors. CKSRT can be used as a salvage method in recurrent multiple brain metastases. Keywords: case report, CyberKnife, multiple brain metastases, Re-irradiation, stereotactic radiosurgery.
Mar 14, 2022 · The CyberKnife (Accuray, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is an image-guided, robotic radiosurgery system. It consists of a 6-MV compact linear accelerator (LINAC) used in conventional radiotherapy. First LINAC designed for radiosurgery was developed with a 3-dimensional treatment planning software called X-knife at Harvard 2).
X-ray treatment of tuberculosis in 1910. Before the 1920s, the hazards of radiation were not understood, and it was used to treat a wide range of diseases.
When Dupuytren's disease is at the nodules and cords stage or fingers are at a minimal deformation stage of less than 10 degrees, then radiation therapy is used to prevent further progress of the disease. Radiation therapy is also used post surgery in some cases to prevent the disease continuing to progress.
The subspecialty of oncology concerned with radiotherapy is called radiation oncologist . Radiation therapy is commonly applied to the cancerous tumor because of its ability to control cell growth. Ionizing radiation works by damaging the DNA of cancerous tissue leading to cellular death.
The amount of radiation used in photon radiation therapy is measured in grays (Gy), and varies depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated. For curative cases, the typical dose for a solid epithelial tumor ranges from 60 to 80 Gy, while lymphomas are treated with 20 to 40 Gy.
Radiation oncology is the medical specialty concerned with prescribing radiation, and is distinct from radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis. Radiation may be prescribed by a radiation oncologist with intent to cure ("curative") or for adjuvant therapy.
Radiation therapy works by damaging the DNA of cancerous cells. This DNA damage is caused by one of two types of energy, photon or charged particle. This damage is either direct or indirect ionization of the atoms which make up the DNA chain. Indirect ionization happens as a result of the ionization of water, forming free radicals, notably hydroxyl radicals, which then damage the DNA.
Epilation (hair loss) may occur on any hair bearing skin with doses above 1 Gy. It only occurs within the radiation field/s. Hair loss may be permanent with a single dose of 10 Gy, but if the dose is fractionated permanent hair loss may not occur until dose exceeds 45 Gy.
Radiotherapy can be given as: external radiotherapy – where a machine directs beams of radiation at the cancer. a radioactive implant inside your body near the cancer. a radioactive liquid that you swallow or have injected. directly at the tumour during surgery (intrabeam radiotherapy)
You may be radioactive for a few days after treatment is given, so you'll probably need to stay in hospital as a precaution until the amount of radiation has fallen to a safe level. Your treatment team may give you some advice to follow for a few days when you get home, to avoid putting other people at risk.
The length of time the implant is left in your body varies. It could be a few minutes or a few days. In some cases, tiny implants may be left inside the body permanently.
If you're having radiotherapy to your head or neck, a plastic mask will be made for you to wear during treatment. The ink marks will be made on the mask.
This treatment is not available at every NHS hospital, only those with an intrabeam machine.
Radiotherapy can cause a range of side effects .
Your team can give you advice about the likely benefits of continuing with treatment, but the final decision to continue or stop is yours.
your general health and fitness. Radiotherapy with the aim of curing cancer usually lasts between 1 to 7 weeks. For radiotherapy to relieve symptoms, you might have anything between a single treatment to 2 weeks of treatment. It might be longer than this. Your doctor will tell you how many treatments you’ll have.
Let your therapy radiographer (sometimes called a radiotherapist) know if you have any commitments, such as work or childcare, that mean you need a specific time for your appointments. They will try to be as flexible as possible, but it can be difficult depending on how busy the department is.
Radiotherapy can be used to try to cure cancer, reduce the chance of cancer coming back or to help relieve symptoms. You might have it by itself or with other treatments, such as chemotherapy or surgery. Nearly 50 out of 100 (50%) people have radiotherapy at some point during their cancer treatment. Most types of radiotherapy use photons.
Radiotherapy means the use of radiation, usually x-rays, to treat cancer. You might have radiotherapy from inside the body, called internal radiotherapy . Or external radiotherapy , which is from outside the body.
Worries about treatment. You may feel anxious about radiotherapy and this is perfectly normal. It can help to talk through any worries you have with your doctor, nurse or radiographer. Find out more about coping with cancer.
Most types of radiotherapy use photons. But you might have electrons or more rarely protons. Your doctor will decide which type you need.
It aims to give a high dose of radiation to the cancer but as low a dose as possible to the surrounding healthy cells. This gives the highest chance of curing or shrinking the cancer while reducing the risk of side effects.
Here we cover the different types of radiotherapy and the potential side effects. • External beam radiotherapy High energy X-ray beams aimed at the prostate from outside the body. • Brachytherapy Small radioactive sources positioned inside the prostate. There are two types of brachytherapy that can be used for different stages of prostate cancer.
It can take place early on (acute) when it occurs within three months of radiation therapy, or it can be delayed (chronic) when it occurs between 18 months and six years after radiation therapy. You may experience symptoms such as diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting and stomach cramps. Talk to your doctor if you are experiencing any of these symptoms, as they may recommend changes to your diet and medication.
With IGRT, images are taken before or during radiotherapy that show the size, shape and location of the tumour to allow the doctor to make minor adjustments in aiming. This helps to deliver the radiation even more precisely and results in fewer side effects.
You may have a shorter course of external beam radiotherapy (four to five weeks) two weeks after the brachytherapy treatment. The side effects are similar to those from external beam radiotherapy apart from a small extra risk of developing a narrowing of the urethra (stricture) – likely for about one in every 20 men.
SBRT uses advanced image-guided techniques to provide large doses of radiation to a precise area. Since there are large doses of radiation in each dose, the entire course of treatment is given over a few days. SBRT is often known by the trade names of the machines that deliver the radiation, such as Gamma Knife and CyberKnife. There are other forms of external beam radiotherapy available as part of clinical trials.
IMRT uses a computer-driven machine that moves around you as it delivers the radiation. It can be used to adjust the dose of radiotherapy given to different parts of the treatment area, which can then limit doses of radiation reaching nearby normal tissues.
You will be seen in the outpatient clinic a few weeks after the radiotherapy finishes and regularly for many years afterwards for follow-up appointments.